affects normal brain functions. It occurs because of a forceful blow
either direct or indirect to the head. A whiplash-type injury is
an example of a direct blow that causes the brain to shake quickly back and
forth inside the skull.
Causes of the Concussion
force or on the opposite side of the head. A concussion can occur with
contact sports, falls, motor vehicle accidents, or physical abuse.
angular movements of the head. Angular or Rotational forces cause the
brain to twist
against the brainstem. The thin stalk that connects the brain to the spinal cord and damages the
structures within because the brainstem controls many vital bodily
functions, including consciousness, Angular and rotational injuries usually cause a loss of consciousness and
are often more serious.
one. A concussed brain usually looks normal in a brain imaging
test. The injury occurs or diagnose at a microscopic level and usually
affects a large area of the brain. The mechanical result exerted by the blow conveys shock waves that
diffuse throughout the brain tissues stretching and possibly shearing
membranes of neurons.
transmitting signals from
one neuron to another. The incidents that take place during and after a concussion are complicated
and not fully understood but likely to include ionic imbalances and
energy crises because of reduced blood flow.
calcium influx, interfere with the action potential dynamics,
interrupting normal communication between neurons. Reduced blood supply
impairs cellular functions and makes the brain more vulnerable to
further injury or damage.
Concussion in Children
because their brain is still developing and therefore more
susceptible to insults. Axons in youthful brains are not fully
myelinated, easier to get injured, and take longer to heal. Brain
development may also hold for some time after sustaining a concussion.
Signs and Symptoms of Concussion
appear immediately. It is normal for the first signs to show up after 20
minutes to hours from the time of impact. Common symptoms include:
- loss of memory
- sensitivity to light
- A problem in concentrating and feeling slowed down.
worsening symptoms such as:
- loss of consciousness or feeling slowed down
- repeated vomiting
- Increasing headache
- Strange behaviors
- Slurred speech
- Limb weakness or numbness
Best Way of Treatment
physical rest. The majority of people fully recover after a couple of
weeks but some may take longer. During recovery, the brain is much more
vulnerable to further abuses, and any activity that may probably
cause another impact should be avoided. A reoccurred injury while the brain
is recovering may exacerbate symptoms result in permanent brain
injury and can be fatal.