Water is continuously making and darining out in the eyes due to this
continuous processing, a pressure develops that affects the nerve which is
connected to the brain. This water pressure keeps our eyes open and a
normal man has 15 to 21 mmHg pressure of water in his eyes. If this water
starts becoming more out of its range or starts to less coming out, the
pressure will increase definitely in the eyes and damage the brain
Best Way to Diagnose Glaucoma
It is a very dangerous disease because the patient does not feel any
symptoms of it so glaucoma has no sign or specific symptoms and
It minimizes the vision light with the passage of
When a patient realizes that his vision light has been decreased
and he goes to an eye specialist doctor then he is able to know that he has been involved in
glaucoma condition and the decreased amount of his vision light is
irreversible and the remaining light of vision can be saved now.
So it is a very dangerous disease and very difficult to diagnose because it has no signs and symptoms.
But in this developed age glaucoma can be diagnosed if it is diagnosed at early stage timely. If you are between the age of
45 to 50 please check your eyes with an ophthalmologist to check
your eye pressure or optic nerve. If he is suspicious about glaucoma he
can test your eyes or can save loss of vision timely.
Risks of Glaucoma in Adults
If glaucoma disease was in your family history like your parents have
glaucoma or grandfather, you are in the smoking habit, you are in diabetes
or obesity or high blood pressure disease, risks of glaucoma
If you are eating steroids or putting steroids in your eyes it can also
increase the risk of glaucoma.
Glaucoma in Children
It may be in children or maybe in adults but in children, it can be
diagnosed easily with some specific symptoms in children. These
symptoms usually are:
- The size of the eye is increased
- Continuously watery eyes
- Scared from lighting
- Feel comfort in Darkness
- White spots occur in the pupil of the eyes
When you notice all these symptoms in your baby please go to an eye
specialist, your child may be in glaucoma.
Glaucoma in Adults
Glaucoma usually presents at the age of 45 to 50 years in men and in
women in presents at the age of 35 to 4o years. It has two types in
1. Open-angle glaucoma
In this type of glaucoma, the path of water remains open, and the patient
does not feel any symptoms in this condition. Therefore it is very
dangerous and open-angle glaucoma is a cause of
2. Closed-angle glaucoma
In this type of glaucoma, the path of water is closed or narrow. Vision
light can be saved in this type of glaucoma because eyes start to panic
due to an acute attack, and the eyes become reddish, the pupils of the eyes become white, the eye may be hard as stone,
black and colorful spots may be seen in the vision.
Best Treatment of Glaucoma
Today a lot of the latest treatments are available non-invasive,
invasive, surgical, laser and medicine treatments. Usually, we start
treatment with eye drops to control the pressure of the eyes if
drops do not perform effectively, treatment with lasers is applied and the
last solution is surgery.
The decreased amount of vision or loss of vision caused by glaucoma can not be reversed but regular treatment and examinations can slow or stop the process of loss of vision. Glaucoma treatment is done by lowering your eye pressure or intraocular pressure but treatment depends on your situation.
Usually, glaucoma treatment starts with prescription eye drops, and these drops assist to reduce eye pressure by improving how fluid drains from your eyes or by decreasing the volume of fluid that your eyes make. Depending on how low your eye pressure. More than one of the prescription eye drops are required to be prescribed as treatment. Prescription eyedrop medication includes:
These eye drops enhance the outflow of the fluid in your eye ( aqueous humor ) thereby minimizing your eyes pressure. The medicines in this field include:
- Xalatan eye drops with an active ingredient Latanoprost.
- Travatan eye drops with an active ingredient Travoprost.
- Travatan Z eye drops with active ingredient of Tafluprost Zioptan.
- Lumigan eye drops with active ingredient Bimatoprost.
- Vyzulta eye drops with active ingredient Latanoprostene Bunod.
Possible adverse effects include mild redness, blurry vision, and stinging of the eyes. darkening of the iris, darkening of the pigment of the eyelashes or eyelids skin. The recommended dose of this class of drugs is once a day use.
This type of class decreases the production of the fluid in the eyes, thereby lowering the pressure in your intraocular pressure. These drops medications include:
- Betimol, Istalol, and Timoptic eye drops with an active ingredient Timolol.
- Betoptic S eye drop made by Alcon with active ingredient betaxolol.
Possible adverse effects include difficulty in breathing, slow heartbeat, low blood pressure, impotence, and fatigue. These drops can be prescribed once or two times a day, depending on the situation.
These types of class drugs minimize the production of aqueous humor and enhance the outflow of fluid in your eyes. Examples are given below
- Iopidine eye drops include an active ingredient apraclonidine
- Alphagan P and Qoliana with an active ingredient Brimonidine.
This class of drugs is prescribed two times a day and sometimes three times a day in severe conditions. The possible adverse effects are swollen, itchy, and red eyes, dryness of mouth, irregular heartbeat, fatigue, and high blood pressure.
Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitors
These medicines are used to minimize the pressure in the eyes. Examples include:
- Trusopt eye drops with the active ingredient Dorzolamide.
- Azopt eye drops with active ingredient Brinzolamide.
Some possible adverse effects are metallic taste, frequent urination, and tingling in the fingers and toes. These drops are prescribed two times a day and in rare cases three times a day.
Rho Kinase Inhibitor
This medicine is used to reduce eyes pressure by suppressing the rho kinase enzymes Which are responsible for the fluid increase. Example include:
- Rhopressa eye drops with active ingredient Netarsudil.
Some possible adverse effects are eye pain, itching, and deposits forming on the cornea.
Miotic or Cholinergic Agents
These medicines are used to increase the outflow of fluid from the eyes. Example include:
- Isopto carpine eye drop with an active ingredient of Pilocarpine.
Some possible side effects are eye aches, headache, blurry vision, small pupils, and nearsightedness. This medicine is prescribed usually four times a day and due to its frequent use daily, is not prescribed anymore.
Treatment for glaucoma with prescription eye drops is for a lifetime and you can put eye
drops only at a specific set time daily otherwise, treatment will be
If eye drops only don’t give you the desired results, your eye doctor may prescribe you oral medication to bring down eye pressure to the desired level. Possible adverse effects include depression, stomach upset, frequent urination, and kidney stones.
Surgery and Other Therapies
Other treatment options include surgeries and laser therapies to treat glaucoma disease. The following procedures are used to improve the drainage of the fluid within the eye thereby lowering eye pressure:
If you have open-angle glaucoma laser trabeculoplasty is an option treatment. It is done to your doctor’s clinic. A small laser beam is used to open clogged channels in the trabecular meshwork. This procedure may take several weeks for the full effects to become apparent.
Through this surgical procedure called trabeculectomy, your surgeon creates an opening in the white of the eye sclera and eliminates the part of the trabecular meshwork.
Your surgeon installs a small tube shunt in your eye to drain away excess fluid to lower eye pressure in this procedure.
Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS)
Your surgeon may suggest MIGS to lower your eye pressure. This procedure has less risk than trabeculectomy or installing a drainage tube. There are a number of MIGS procedures but your doctor will suggest which procedure is right for you.
After any eye treatment procedure, you will have to see your eye expert for follow-up exams. You may eventually need to undergo further procedures if your eye pressure starts to rise or any other change occurs in your eye.
Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma Treatment
It is a medical emergency condition of glaucoma. If you are involved in acute angle-closure glaucoma, there is a need for urgent treatment to decrease pressure in your eyes. Usually, it requires both medication laser and other surgical procedures.
Your eye surgeon may suggest you a laser peripheral iridotomy in which a small opening is formed in your iris using a laser. It allows fluid to flow through it, releasing the eye pressure.