Saturday, October 9, 2021

Neurosurgical Signs and Symptoms of a Concussion Injury

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 A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that affects normal brain functions. It occurs because of a forceful blow either direct or indirect to the head. A whiplash-type injury is an example of a direct blow that causes the brain to shake quickly back and forth inside the skull.


Causes of the Concussion

In a direct blow, an injury may develop on the side of the contact with the force or on the opposite side of the head. A concussion can occur with contact sports, falls, motor vehicle accidents, or physical abuse.

Brain injury can occur with translational, rotational, or angular movements of the head. Angular or Rotational forces cause the brain to twist against the brainstem. The thin stalk that connects the brain to the spinal cord and damages the structures within because the brainstem controls many vital bodily functions, including consciousness, Angular and rotational injuries usually cause a loss of consciousness and are often more serious.

A concussion is functional damage or injury rather than a structural one. A concussed brain usually looks normal in a brain imaging test. The injury occurs or diagnose at a microscopic level and usually affects a large area of the brain. The mechanical result exerted by the blow conveys shock waves that diffuse throughout the brain tissues stretching and possibly shearing membranes of neurons.

Especially along with the long axons that work for transmitting signals from one neuron to another. The incidents that take place during and after a concussion are complicated and not fully understood but likely to include ionic imbalances and energy crises because of reduced blood flow.

Ionic troubles, such as abnormal potassium efflux and calcium influx, interfere with the action potential dynamics, interrupting normal communication between neurons. Reduced blood supply impairs cellular functions and makes the brain more vulnerable to further injury or damage.

Concussion in Children

Kids and teens are at greater risks for brain damage or injury because their brain is still developing and therefore more susceptible to insults. Axons in youthful brains are not fully myelinated, easier to get injured, and take longer to heal. Brain development may also hold for some time after sustaining a concussion.

Signs and Symptoms of Concussion

Signs and symptoms of concussion are difficult to detect and do not appear immediately. It is normal for the first signs to show up after 20 minutes to hours from the time of impact. Common symptoms include:
  • drowsiness
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • loss of memory
  • sensitivity to light
  • A problem in concentrating and feeling slowed down.
Patients should be observed for at least 48 hours for worsening symptoms such as:
  • loss of consciousness or feeling slowed down
  • repeated vomiting
  • Increasing headache
  • Confusion
  • Strange behaviors
  • Seizures
  • Slurred speech
  • Limb weakness or numbness
Any of these would need emergency care.

Best Way of Treatment

Concussion normally resolves on its own with proper cognitive and physical rest. The majority of people fully recover after a couple of weeks but some may take longer. During recovery, the brain is much more vulnerable to further abuses, and any activity that may probably cause another impact should be avoided. A reoccurred injury while the brain is recovering may exacerbate symptoms result in permanent brain injury and can be fatal.

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